This case of a 10-fold dosing error resulted in death.

I also found this paper which studies the prevalence of dosing errors in pediatric residents:
"In a recent two month audit conducted at our institution, clinical pharmacists intercepted 19 cases of erroneous dose orders written by paediatric trainees, 10 of them of 10-fold magnitude or more, five of which would have resulted in serious morbidity or death."